Originally designed to investigate atmospheric ozone circulation, today's LOTOS-EUROS:
LOTOS-EUROS calculates the formation and dispersion of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, organic and elemental carbon, mineral dust, sea spray, secondary aerosols and heavy metals across Europe. The default model resolution is approximately 25 x 25 km2 but it is possible to zoom in on urban and industrial areas. The model links anthropogenic and biogenic emissions with the occurrence of specific concentrations and deposition. Its vertical layer structure makes it very efficient in use.
LOTOS and EUROS were developed in the 1990s by the Dutch organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO and The Environmental Assessment Agency of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM/MNP) and have been used as models for the study of the atmospheric distribution of photo-oxidants. The two models were combined in 2004 to give LOTOS-EUROS version 1.0, which has been used by TNO, RIVM and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute KNMI. The open-source 2.0 version of the model was released in 2016 to extend the community of users.